posted 07-11-2005 05:23 PM
My recent fascination has been Russian silverwork. Sazikov2000 provided me with what is assuredly the most comprehensive reference on the subject (Perhaps with the exception of the $1000.00 Ivanov set). As I understand it, there exists no English translation of 3oлoтoe и Cepeбpaннoe Дeлo XV-XX вв. That being the case, I decided to spend the whole of my past weekend, deciphering its "Typological Dictionary of Gold & Silver Work" (The word was that Dennis was going to bear down on us hard, and I felt pretty certain that I'd be stuck at home with little else to do... Turns out the winds of fate had other plans).
In any event, with most of the work on the section for "Holloware and Tableware" finished, I thought I'd share the fruits of my efforts with the forum, and maybe someone out there will learn something.
- Please note that I am not an authority on Russian, and that the following translation resulted from hours of painstaking back-and-forth "looking-upping" and a whole lot of trust in my pocket-size Russian-English dictionary. There are bound to be several huge semantic errors, and I'm happy to receive suggestions from those who spot them.
- Wherever possible, I have preserved the original Russian syntax and word order and, hopefully, the general feeling conveyed through them. However, Russian grammar and syntax can be a little tricky to carry into English, so there are a number of places where I had to anglicize the message, but I think the altered phrasing is more or less faithful to the original.
- Below, the original Russian words appear in bold. Their pronunciations are featured near them in italic, along with a loose translation in italicized quotes. The accented syllable, if I was able to determine it, is indicated by an acute accent. The pronunciations indicated make use of generally English phonetic rules (Sorry, S2K, but I imagine the greatest number of forum members would benefit this way).
- My personal notes and explanatory comments, including uncertain translations, also appear in italic. Uncertain translations are flanked by question marks as well. There were also a number of words and phrasings that I simply couldn't make sense of, and those are indicated by an ellipsis flanked by question marks.
Пocyдa и Убpaнcтвo Cтoлa
Posoúda i Oubránstvo Stóla
"Holloware and Tableware"
According to purpose, may have various forms or sizes. Silver ?platters? were widely used throughout Old Russia. At feast times, a great variety of foods were served on them. The ecclesiastical records of Dmitrii Ivanovich (Zhilki) at the beginning of the 16th century list over 125 kinds of silver ?platters? for various purposes: ? . . . ?, etc. plain or with ornamentation.
In the 17th century, silver ?platters? were nearly always round, plain, with broad rims, and engraved, or ? . . . ?. Deeper ?platters? were called миca (Mísa - bowl). [i]?Platters? played a large role in the ceremonies of Old Russia. At a wedding, a ?platter? carrying the ?dowery? was presented to the bride. The young were also served food on such ?platters?. ?Platters? of gold are scarcely found—They were only produced for distinct solemn occasions, as for example an imperial wedding.
Round, deep ?platters?, plain or with ? . . . ? along the rim, were placed with the dead in their tombs.
In the 18th century, ?platters? appear as part of table services. Long, oval ?platters? were often used for fish, and wider oval ones for ?roasts and pies?.
In the 18th to 20th centuries they serve as gifts for housewarming, receptions, or anniversaries, as well as trophies (in horse-racing, for example).
Vessel for wine; a large, tall pюмкa (wine glass) or smaller кyбoк (goblet), with a cup like an inverted bell. It appears in the 18th century.
A vessel for drink, of almost spherical form, on a small foot and sometimes with a conical lid. In addition to gold and silver, bratinas were once made of coconuts, stones, or bones (This may also mean ivory, since in Russian the two words are identical), with settings of precious jewels. The bratina almost always bears a band of inscription at its crown, engraved, or in enamel or niello, of the owner's name, ?a wish of good health. . .?, or a moral teaching. The bratina serves to hold ?. . .?.
They were also placed in the tombs of the dead, filled with ?. . .?
The earliest record of a bratina dates to the early 16th century, but they do not become common until the 17th century.
In 17th century Germany, primarily at Hamburg, silver bratinas were produced for the Russian court according to the forms and ornamental distinctions of the Russian craft.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the bratina began to serve as a decorative vessel, as gifts or awards, yet sometimes as a wine vessel, out of which one may pour (may also mean "serve with a ladle") into smaller glasses.
"hot water kettle"
A kettle for boiling water, on a stand with a burner. The boulotka made possible the continuous heating of water to be dispensed, thanks to the burning fuel underneath the kettle. The kettles were diverse in form. The stand is reminiscent of ?. . .?, with a support ring at its top, on which sits the kettle. The burner is placed in a ring under the kettle, and consists of a small cylindrical box, at the lid of which is a knob to adjust the wick.
The boulotka appears at the beginning of the 18th century as a component of silver tea services. It occurred more frequently among the noble and aristocratic circles as an alternative to the samovar.
A silver vessel for caviar. Sometimes in the form of a wooden caviar bucket. Late 19th-early 20th centuries.
Silver, in the form of a vodka bottle, with an inscription engraved in a cartouche. Late 19th-20th centuries.
Depending on its purpose, it may assume many forms and sizes. Large silver bowls, sometimes with lids, were exclusively decorative in purpose in the 18th & 19th centuries.
Вaзa для Фpyктoв
Váza dlia Froúktof
A crytal or glass insert on a silver base, of large size, round, oval, or fanciful in form, with a flat bottom and high rim, 19th century onward. Sometimes the fruit bowl consists of a glass plate or tray attached to a tall cast stand, often with a sculptural figure or group.
Вaзa для цвeтoв
Váza dlia Tsvétof
A large piece, of crystal or glass on a silver base. In the 19th century, there are such vases in the greatest diversity of forms, often cylindrical or trumpet-shaped. These first appear in the 18th century.
An oval carrying tray with a handle at each end, and with chased representations and ornaments. 16th-17th centuries, mostly of foreign manufacture.
Depending on purpose and era of manufacture, it may have various numbers of tines (2,3,4), and various forms. In Russia, the fork begins to be produced at the end of the 17th century.
"Table (or Dinner) Fork"
In the 17th and early 18th centuries it had two tines. In the 17th century the handle was roughly cylindrical in shape, widening somewhat toward its tip. In the 18th century, the handle often has a somewhat curved end. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, table forks were produced entirely of silver (Rather, presumably, than with a silver handle attached to tines of other materials), with three tines and flat handles with wide ends. Forks with four tines appear in the 19th-20th centuries.
Вилкa Дecepтнaя и для Фpyктoв
Vílka Desértnaya i dlia Froúktof
"Dessert and Fruit Forks"
Distinguished from table forks by their smaller size. To prevent oxidation, the tines are often gilded. These appear at the end of the 18th century.
Вилкa для Pыбы
Vílka dlia Ríbi
Large, with three or four short tines. There are often engraved images of fish at the wide handle end or near the tines. These appear in the 19th century.
Вилкa для Caлaтa
Vílka dlia Saláta
"Salad (Serving) Fork"
Made of horn or wood with a silver handle. They appear in the 19th century.
Вилкa для Лимoнa
Vílka dlia Limóna
Very small, and diverse in form. They appear in the 19th and 20th centuries.
A storage vessel for drink, in the form of a jug or pitcher on a foot, with a handle and flat lid. These appear in the 16th-17th centuries.
Usually glass (clear or colored) and a cylindrical rim, with a hinged lid. Along the edge of the lid are spoon ?hooks?rests?supports?. By the 19th century it appears as part of a condiment set, Cyдoк Cтoлoвый.
Old Russian word for a stakan, Cтaкaн.
A vessel in the form of a large ápaòèía (bratina)with a spout at the upper rim. Out of this are poured wine, beer, mead, braga (a mead-like drink), and other drinks, into drinking vessels. Sizes are diverse. In existence in Russia until the end of the 17th century.
Иглa для Жapкoвo или дичи
Iglá dlia zharkóvo ili díchi
"Roast or Game 'Needle'"
[i]?. . .?-like in appearance, one end of which is pointed, and the other cast as a loop, plume, or a small figure of a bird. It is inserted into a roast as decoration. Appears in the 19th century.
Silver carafe and wine glasses (6 or 12) on a tray. 19th-20th centuries.
A Georgian wine vessel of spherical form with a long crooked neck ending in a funnel-like mouth, ?which is sealed with a small plug?. The karkara is found in various sizes, from small to reaching as high as a person's head. On the spherical body are chased images or other ornament. The form of the karkara, evidently, is inspired by the pumpkin, the cut stalk of which curls corkscrew-like as it dries.
Kнoпкa для cыpa
Knópka dlia Síra
A simple tack with a round, somewhat concave head and a flat forked point. The tacks are inserted into a piece of cheese and serve as grips for the fingers ?while carving it?. It appears in the 19th century.
A low, wide, boat-like vessel for drink, reminiscent in the shape of its silhouette of a duck on the water, oval or round, with a highly elevated handle. This part of the kovsh which bends away is called the Пeлюcть P(y)eliust. It is a corruption of the word Лeпecть L(y)epest, i.e. Лeпecтoк Lepestok, "Petal", which in the 16th century designated the end of the kovsh handle, reminiscent of a willow leaf.
The first mention and description of a kovsh date from the 14th century. Gold and silver kovshi served as drinking vessels until the last quarter of the 17th century. At the late 17th, 18th, and first quarter of the 19th centuries, kovshi served as award objects for various honors. They were engraved with the date, the name of ?the awarding government?, and the honor for which the award is given.
From the kovsh one drank mead, among the most widespread of drinks in Old Russia. In the ?cellar? the kovsh served in a definite manner, availing itself as a ladle with which to serve from casks.
In the church the kovsh was used to drink ?the sacrament?.
The loss of practical significance of the kovsh necessitated a modification of its forms. The kovsh sometimes stands on a base, or on ball-feet. Kovshes of the mid-18th century are often very unusual, massive oval pieces with undulating rims and high walls, and upon their narrow end two great cast eagles grasping branches or leaves in their beaks. Only by force of tradition do they retain their designation as kovshi, as in their form and ornamentation they are purely decorative bowls, sharing nothing in common with the Old Russian kovshi.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, in the quest for a national Russian form, silver ?ceremonial? kovshi were produced, engraved, chased, and decorated with niello and enamel, with fashionable embellishments "in the Russian style". These decorative kovshi served as wine vessels and acted in the capacity of award and gift objects.
Koпьцo для caпфeтки
Koltsó dlia salf(y)étki
Round or oval in form, in which are inserted table napkins. On these napkin rings are often engraved the name of their owner, or a ?gift? inscription. These appear in the 19th century.
A small, kovsh-like vessel on a foot, oval in form, with an attached handle. Both interior and exterior may be chased, ?and the opposite walls were often made identical pairs?. Around the base may be found ?medallion devices? with figures of birds or animals. The high spout of the korchik may end in a finial like a bud or ?. . .?. Along the rim, the korchik is often engraved with the owner's name or a moral teaching.
A vessel of varied forms (pear-shaped, compressed sphere, truncated cone, etc.) with a tall spout, a handle on its side, and a hinged lid. The handle and lid finial are often made in whole or in part of wood or bone.
In Russia, coffeepots begin to be made in the second third of the 18th century.
It is often impossible to distinguish a coffeepot from a teapot by simply its form, and it becomes necessary to inspect the interior. If the spout is divided from the body by a perforated plate, then it is a teapot. In the coffeepot the spout is merely joined to the body.
A vessel for drink, largely cylindrical in form with a handle at its side, a hinged or removable lid, and on a base or on feet. Until the end of the 17th century, there existed in Russia only imported krouzhki. The first Russian krouzhki were produced in Moscow in the 1690's. Yet earlier Russian silversmiths are known to have embellished plain krouzhki of foreign make with engraved decoration or images. By the 18th century, krouzhki were produced in Russia almost ubiquitously. By the 19th century, krouzhki had lost their practical significance, and served primarily as decorative presentation and gift objects.
A wine-drinking vessel, composed of a body, stem, and base. Its forms are diverse. Ancient records make mention of goblets in the “stakan”, “bratina”, “pumpkin”, and “grape” styles, etc., of which the bodies are shaped like stakan drinking-glasses, bratinas, pumpkins, or grape clusters. The stems may be made to look like ?vases?, ?. . .?, tree trunks, or cast human figures. The base has the form of an overturned platter or bowl. The koubok goblet almost always has a removable lid, with a finial in the form of a crown, cast eagle, or other such figure.
In Old Russia, koubok goblets were made in large volume for the ruling upper-class, where they were used not only as drinking vessels, but also as decorative furnishings. Until the 17th century, goblets in Russia were almost exclusively imported. In the 17th century there exist only isolated examples of Russian make. It is only from the 18th century that goblets begin to be produced in large number. Imported goblets in Old Russia frequently appeared as gift objects or imperial awards.
In the 19th-20th centuries these goblets had a decorative purpose and to this day serve as trophies for sporting competitions.
A Georgian wine vessel, of a form reminiscent of a large tobacco pipe. It is usually made of wood, with a silver setting. Attached to the faceted pipe, through which one may drink, there is often a funnel-like piece to fill with wine. This part may be sealed with a stopper, joined to the object by a chain.
Known since earliest antiquity, it consists of a round or oval bowl and a stem which can occur in a number of lengths and forms. According to function, the spoon may exhibit various forms and sizes.
“Table (or Dinner) Spoon”
Dinner spoons of Russian make have their beginnings in the 17th century. Bowls and stems were abundantly adorned with engraving, niello, or chasing. Through the first half of the 17th century, the stem is short; by century’s end, very long and narrow. In the 18th century the spoon has a plain oval bowl with a blunt tip, and a flat handle widening only at its end. In the 19th century the bowl becomes an elongated and pointed oval, while the handle becomes somewhat arched in the middle. In the Ukraine during the 17th-18th centuries, spoons are often decorated with the coats-of-arms or initials of their owners.
Distinguished from dinner spoons by their smaller size. They appear in the 19th century.
Лoжкa для Moзгa Kocтeй
Lózhka dlia Mozga Kostei
Small gold or silver spoon with a narrow, straight gutter-like handle, with which was extracted the marrow from cooked meats. It appears in the 18th century.
Лoжкa для Уxи
Lózhka dlia Oukhí
“Fish Soup Spoon”
Often decorated with depictions of fish. It appears in the 17th century.
It appears in the 18th century with the spread of tea, not large, with an oval or round bowl, and a flat, faceted, or “spiral” handle.
Distinguished from teaspoons by its smaller size. It appears in the 18th century.
Лoжкa для Пyншa
Lózhka dlia Púnsha
Not much smaller than teaspoons, with pointed oval bowls and handles fashioned like ?plumes?. It appears in the 19th century.
Лoжкa для Caлaтa
Lózhka dlia Saláta
“Salad (Serving) Spoon”
Large, with a shallow, oval shaped bowl of shell, wood, antler, or bone, and a silver handle. It appears in the 19th century.
Лoжкa Paзливaтeльнaя для Cyпa - ( Упoлoвник )
Lózhka Razlivatelnaya dlia Soupa – (Oupolovnik)
Large, deep, with a long and flat, or faceted, handle.
Лoжкa для Bин
Lózhka dlia Vina
“?Spoon/Ladle? for Wine”
Oval, round, shell-shaped, helmet-shaped, etc. It has a handle of wood or bone if intended for use with “hot wine”. It appears in the 18th century.
Лoжкa для Coли
Lózhka dlia Soli
Like a small scoop in appearance.
Лoжкa для Гopч#1080;цы
Lózhka dlia Gorchitsi
Small silver or bone ladle, with a round, deep bowl and a curved handle. It appears in the 18th century.
In addition to the above listed spoons, in the 18th and 19th centuries there existed numerous examples of sauce ladles, spoon-sifters with perforations large or small, for ?prostokvashi? or other foods. The purposes of some of these are difficult to determine today.
Лoпaткa для Пиpoгa
Lopatka dlia Piroga
Large, flat, often engraved, with a long handle.
Лoпaткa для Pыбы
Lopatka dlia Ribi
“Fish Server (Spade)”
In large part decorated with engraved representations of fish. It appears in the 19th century.
A deep siliver or gold platter with a wide rim. It appears in the 16th-17th centuries.
A vessel for soup, of diverse forms (oval, round, hemispherical, etc.), with a removable lid and two handles, on feet or on a base, often on a tray. In Russia, these soup tureens begin to be made in the 18th century. Their lids often have foot-like projections, and, inverted, the lids may serve as trays for meat extracted from the soup (Perhaps stew).
Produced in numerous forms (Pear-shaped, spherical, truncated cone, etc.), on a base or feet, with a somewhat projecting wide spout at the upper rim of the body, and handle at its side. This appears in the 18th century.
Depending upon its purpose and era of manufacture, it may have numerous forms.
“Table (or Dinner) Knife”
In the 17th and early 18th centuries it had a handle of almost cylindrical form, widening somewhat at its end, sometimes ?flattened on one side?. The blade appeared like a rectangular band with its corners canted at its end. At the end of the 18th and in the 19th centuries, table knives are produced with plain round or faceted handles.
Нoжи Дecepтныe и для Фpyктoв
Nozhi Desértnie i dlia Frouktof
“Dessert and Fruit Knives”
Distinguished from table knives by their smaller size. They have gilded or silver blades. They appear at the end of the 18th century.
Нoж для Cыpa
Nozh dlia Sira
With a short, broad, curved blade, reminiscent in form of a ?. . .? . It appears in the 19th century.
“(Wine) Bottle Cooler”
A vessel for the chilling of wine bottles, with high walls and a handle at each side. It was made in various sizes, for one bottle or more. At its bottom sat the ice, amidst which the bottle of wine would be placed.
“Wine Glass Cooler”
With low walls, engraved along the rim, it served to cool wine glasses before serving them at the table. It appears in Russia in the 18th century.
A small pepper container, bottle-like in appearance, of diverse forms (Pear-shaped, cylindrical, etc.) with a threaded cap. This top is pierced with small round or arbitrarily-shaped holes. By the 18th century the pepper shaker constitutes part of a condiment set, Cyдoк Cтoлoвый.
Depending on purpose and era of manufacture, these may assume various forms (Round, oval, rectangular, or whimsical). Such trays may on the table underneath the samovar or water kettle, and on them food and drink may be brought to the table. [i]?Later forms are made with handles on each end? Trays appear from the 18th century.
“(Tea) Glass Holder”
A support for drinking glasses, often filigreed, with a handle at its side. It appears in the 19th century.
A bowl on a low foot, used for [i]?. . .? at tea. It forms part of a tea service. It appears in the 18th century.
“(Wine) Bottle Stopper”
A cast ornament for a cork, onto which it is fastened by a sharp point at its core. Often the ornament is attached by a chain to a ring which is placed around the bottle’s neck. It appears at the end of the 18th century.
A platter on a tall foot, used in Old Russia to present pickled vegetables at the table. It appears in the 16th to 17th centuries. Largely of foreign manufacture.
Poг для Питья Винa
Rog dlia Pit’ya Vina
A Georgian drinking vessel of cattle horn, or that of another beast, with silver fittings, mostly decorated in niello. It appears in Georgia up to the present time.
A small vessel for wine, composed of a conical or almost cylindrical cup on a ?. . .?-like stem, and a round base. It appears from the 17th century.
A vessel for boiling water, within which stands a pipe filled with hot coals. At various years the samovar assumed various forms. It appeared from the second third of the 18th century, when tea gained greater use as a drink.
It begins to be produced in the 1730’s, with the rise in consumption of tea and coffee. Sakharnitsi for lump sugar looked like lidded baskets; they were equipped with locks, which allowed the mistress to lock away the precious contents.
Caxapницa для Caxapнoй Пyдpы
Sakharnitsa dlia Sakharnoi Poudri
Like a large bottle, pear-shaped, or cylindrical, in form, with a threaded cap pierced with round or otherwise-shaped holes. They appear from the 18th century.
A set of holloware, the exact count determined by the number of users, consisting of objects grouped not only for their utilitarian functions, but also by virtue of their artistic forms. According to their designations, services are made for dinner, tea, coffee; Also encountered are dessert and banquet services. In composition and number, services are very diverse.
The principal types of silver services were developed in the mid-18th century. Characteristic of the 18th century was the silver Orlov service, given by Ekaterina II to Count Orlov, counting 1041 pieces.
In the 18th century there were also produced “toilet” services, in which belonged toilet accessories. The production of such services reveals the custom of admitting guests to the boudoir. Such services were sometimes produced even in gold.
In the body of antique services entered many objects beyond those customary to practice: Sculptural table decorations, wine vessels (fountains), ice vessels to cool wine or rum (peredachi coolers), candlesticks, candle-snuffing ?tongs?, and many others. By the end of the 18th to early 19th century, in addition to services for 40, 60, 150, and 250 people, there emerged those for 8, 14, or 20.
Cитeчкo для Пpoцeживaния Чaя
Sítechko dlia Protsézhivaniya Chaya
Affixed to the spout of a teapot by its small hook, and like a round or cylindrical basket in form, with many small perforations at its bottom. Tea strainers may also be formed like deep spoons, held above cups while pouring tea. In existence in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Some tea strainers were also made with short handles and wide bowls, placed directly on cups, whereas for making tea within the cup on used an egg-shaped strainer, with a stem as on a spoon, or on a chain. Known since the 19th century, in our day ?they have become travel necessities.?
A silver vessel like a wide, shallow, cylindrical pot in form, with ?. . .? a short handle. A dominant form from the 17th to early 18th centuries.
Distinguished from a milk pot by its smaller size.
“Tea Caddy Spoon” lit. “Little Scoop”
For dispensing tea (leaves) into the teapot, small, plain, and with a handle.
Of diverse forms, often with a lid. In the first half of the 18th century, hollows for salt were made in tall cylindrical stands and round ?. . .? on feet. At the end of the 18th-early19th centuries, salt cellars were often made of clear or colored glass and metal, covered in enamel, in a ?. . .? silver fitting. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they were made in the form of wooden peasant salt cellars.
A sauce vessel, oval in form, with a side projecting spout and a handle on its opposite side, on an oval base. It appears in the mid-18th century. In the 19th and early 20th century, it also bears the name пoдливoчник podlívochnik.
A case for storing knives and forks, almost cylindrical in form, widening at its top, on a foot or base, with a removable lid. Usually it is constructed of wood, and “upholstered” in delicate silver ?leaf?. In its wooden component are bored holes in which knives and forks are inserted in such an arrangement that their positions are visible upon removing the lid. It was a dominant form at the end of the 17th century. In later times the stav loses its aesthetic appeal, becoming an ordinary box clad in leather.
A smaller, almost cylindrical container for food, with a somewhat widening upper body and a flat bottom. They often have lids. Produced until the beginning of the 18th century. Used, apparently, for взвapa ?i.e. sauce?. In monasteries, stavtsi served as personal containers. Hence the proverb “To each stavkou as the next.” Note: The exact meaning of this Russian idiom is beyond me; I would imagine that it means something like either ‘To each his own’ or ‘Everyone receives the same’.
Drinking Vessel. Until the last quarter of the 17th century they were plain, with ?. . .?. At the late 17th-18th centuries stakani assume an almost nearly cylindrical form, often elevated on feet like spheres or fruit in appearance. Forms of the 18th-20th centuries are diverse.
A vessel for drink in the form of a large stakan glass on a foot, often with a lid. Stopi experience an especially wide distribution at the end of the 17th century, when they are often made faceted, with engraved decoration, through the whole of the 18th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries, stopi serve frequently as prize or award cups.
A stand with bottle-like vessels for oil, vinegar, pepper, powdered sugar, and mustard. The number of containers may vary&emdash;Two, three, four, or five. To the center of the stand is attached a rod with a loop, which serves as a handle. These appear in the 18th century.
A container for cookies or biscuits, made in the form of an oval basket on a foot, with handles on each side. In the 19th century it enters the body of the tea service. It appears from the end of the 18th century.
In the Russian culture, until the end of the 17th century it had mostly decorative usages (Plates of gold, enamel, or niello). For the dinner and banquet table, the function of a plate was long performed by pieces of bread. In the 18th century the silver plate became an indispensable part of a proper table service. In the 19th century, widely available porcelain ware replaced silver plates.
Matching silver teapot, sugar bowl, and creamer. The name arose in the late 19th-early 20th centuries.
A vessel for table vinegar, in form like a small pitcher with a hinged lid, a projecting spout, and a handle on its side. These form part of a condiment stand. It appears from the 18th century.
See Лoжкa Paзливaтeльнaя
For making tea, it occurs in various forms: Pear-shaped, spherical, compressed sphere, bell-shaped, truncated cone, etc. The handle and finial are often made of wood or bone. Within the teapot, the spout is divided from the body by a perforated plate. The teapot appears in the second third of the 18th century.
A container for storing tea leaves. In the 18th century it was a tall container with a short, narrow neck, and a threaded cap. In the 19th century its form was of a box with a twin lid.
A vessel for drink, low, round, without a foot, and often with a flat, shelf-like handle, horizontally oriented to the body. In the Old Russian culture known from the 12th century. Ukrainian examples of the 17th-18th centuries often have a handle made to look like a double eagle, or two handles. Georgian examples, aзapпeши&emdash;azarpeshi, are low, flat, round, vessels with long, flat handles, reminiscent in form of a ladle. Often in the center of their bottoms stand cast figures of birds.
A small vessel for strong drink, especially widespread in the 17th-18th centuries. In the 16th and 17th centuries the charka looked like a small chara, but was made to stand on a base or on ball-feet. In the 18th century its forms were altogether different: Like an inverted bell-jar, like an oval or round cup, with a handle or without, or like a small disc with faceted or round upper parts. There are preserved many charki of the 18th century in the form of small cups, on which are found tokens of coronations or deaths of emperors and empresses. In the 19th-20th centuries charki have the most varied forms: Like krouzhki, little stakan-glasses, little pots, in the style of little kovshi or charki of the 17th century, like ?. . .?, large thimbles, etc. At the end of the 19th-early 20th centuries, charki are often called cтoпкaми (stopkami&emdash;or little stopa-goblets).
Ancient drinking vessel, round, deep, often hemispherical in form, of various sizes. ?. . . This following passage goes for several sentences describing Чин Чaши, an ancient toasting ritual of Old Russia. It gets rather deep, and I dare not hazard an attempt at translation. . .?
A number of chashi are encountered with ornamental lions’ heads bearing rings in their jaws. The proper name for these is not known. In monasteries of Old Russia, they were used like a bell&emdash;Striking it, the abbott would summon his monks.
Чaшкa c Блюцeм для Чaя
Chashka s Bliudtsem dlia Chaya
“Tea Cup and Saucer”
Appears at the end of the 18th century. Silver tea cups are scarce compared to those of china. In the 19th-20th century they were mostly produced as gifts.
Чaшкa c Блюцeм для Koфe
Chashka s Bliudtsem dlia Kofe
“Coffee Cup and Saucer”
Distinguished from tea cups by their smaller size.
A vessel for a hot chocolate drink, distinguished from the coffeepot by its smaller size, as well as the form and position of its wood or bone handle, made straight and projecting horizontally from the body. It appears in the middle and second half of the 18th century.
Щипцы для Caxapa
Shchiptsi dlia Sakhara
A device for extracting lumps of sugar from a caxapницa (Sugar Bowl). Commonly made in the form of birds, which seize the sugar in their beaks. It appears in the 18th century.
Щипцы для Cпapжи
Shchiptsi dlia Spárzhi
Large tongs, designed for taking asparagus from its serving platter. The inner side of its wide, flat functional end is ribbed. It appears in the 19th century.
Яapлык нa Cocyд c Винoм
Yarlik na Sosoud c Vinom
“Wine Bottle Label”
Decoratively shaped flat plate, attached to a chain, and engraved with the name of a wine. It is suspended from the neck of a bottle or carafe of wine. It appears in the 19th century.